An article by Karen Swan entitled “Social Presence and E-Learning” is available from: [accessed Apr 27, 2015].

ABSTRACT Social presence” can be defined as the ability of participants in online discussions both to perceive other participants as “real people” and to project themselves socially and affectively into the disussion. This paper explores the concept of social presence and its relationship to learning online, through a review of research studies to date investigating these topics and a summary of their findings.