Professor Katherine Brown, associate professor of communication and faculty director of the Career Readiness Initiative in the College of Humanities, Arts, Behavior and Social Sciences, describes how she helps students connect what they are learning in the classrom to planning their next steps after college by demonstrating how others can resist the tendency to portray any concern with employability as somehow anti-intellectual, or as a rejection of the ideas and traditions of liberal arts education.
Professor Brown outlines the following points relative to her initiative:
acknowledge how connections between skills developed in “college readiness” activities also contribute to “career readiness” and employability;
success is defined by many as a “fit” between our values, skills and abilities, and the goals, needs, culture, and practices of an employer;
over the years employers have consistently highly ranked skills of importance that are practiced daily in classrooms and other campus learning environments – verbally communicating inside and outside the organization, working in a team structure, obtaining and processing information, and making decisions when problem solving;
students are provided opportunities to practice and demonstrate soft skills and articulate connections between what is taught and how it can benefit non-profits or for-profit organizations hiring graduates.
According to results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers, Class of 2018 Job Outlook Survey, college students believe they’re ready for a job, but employers disagree. For the most part, a high percentage of students indicated in most of the eight career readiness competencies that they were proficient. The largest discrepancy was in the professionalism/work ethic competency. These findings were supported by similar research conducted in 2015 by The Association of American Colleges and Universities.
Brandon Busteed, executive director of Gallup’s higher education division adds that research definitions can vary among employers and academia. For instance, Gallup has found that generally, an employer believes “critical thinking” is coming up with new, original thought. But in an academic sense, it can mean picking apart ideas in depth. Another varied definition relates to written communication. Some students might excel at writing technical reports or papers with citations, but this type of writing is far different than writing for marketing.
By 2020, 65 percent of all jobs in the economy will require postsecondary education and training beyond high school. The United States is more educated than ever: In 1973, workers with postsecondary education held only 28 percent of jobs; by comparison, they held 59 percent of jobs in 2010 and will hold 65 percent of jobs in 2020. Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the Workforce publication provides vital labor market information such as which fields are expected to create the most jobs, the education requirements required to gain employment in the U.S., and the skills most coveted by employers. Key findings include:
STEM, Healthcare Professions, Healthcare Support, and Community Services will be the fastest growing occupations, but also will require high levels of post-secondary education.
Employers will seek cognitive skills such as communication and analytics from job applicants rather than physical skills traditionally associated with manufacturing.
In an era marked by rapid advances in automation and artificial intelligence, new research by McKinsey and Company, assesses the jobs lost and jobs gained under different scenarios through 2030. A key finding is that while there may be enough work to maintain full employment to 2030, under most scenarios, the transitions will be very challenging—matching or even exceeding the scale of shifts out of agriculture and manufacturing we have seen in the past.
McKinsey Global Institute researchers claim 46 percent of all of the time for which people are now paid in the U.S. economy is spent in activities that could be automated based on currently available technology. But the rise in automation doesn’t necessarily mean that postsecondary institutions are losing their value; rather, it means that colleges and universities are going to have to shift their focus and start focusing in on the humanities — developing soft skills needed for jobs of the future. Filling gaps in the workforce and being the institution that can provide those graduates for jobs that don’t exist yet — requires a collective look into the education to career pipeline.
Employability Skills, part of the STEM 2.0 framework, are an essential skill set for 21st century employees. Additionally, employers believe a gap exists between the required skill set and the skills that employees entering the work force possess. The STEM Innovation Task Force has taken a multi-phased approach to identify what skills lie in the gap, how those skills can be taught or imparted, and what actions employers, educators and policymakers can take to close the gap. The authors encourage educators and organizations that teach these skills to continue to prioritize employability skills and the use of career-focused experiential learning.
Most of the time as college instructors, we are concerned with ways of knowing. We want to teach students about our discipline, and train them to think like scholars in our field. But we should not neglect our duty to teach broader skills — ones that transcend the classroom and can be put into practice in the students’ lives beyond college. By trying to help our students develop habits of mind, we are guiding them in the future, whether they continue in our disciplines or not. The author of this article, David Gooblar writes a column on teaching for The Chronicle and runs Pedagogy Unbound, a website for college instructors who share teaching strategies.
The New Vision for Education project examines the role that technology can potentially play to improve education for the future. In phase II, we investigated innovative ways to help students develop competencies* and character qualities broadly defined as social-emotional skills, which are critical components of 21st-century skill framework but not a core focus in today’s curriculum. Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) will prepare today’s students for this evolving workplace, with consequent benefits for individuals, businesses, the economy and society as outlined in the World Economic Forum Report.
Exhibit 3: A variety of general and targeted learning strategies foster social and emotional skills
The global economy has undergone a transformation that has shaped our lives in ways that we are only starting to understand. As indicated in the Opportunity Project white paper developed by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the traditional social contract separated the roles of employers and government in talent development, with employers investing in the training of their employed workers and government focusing on initial secondary and postsecondary education. This traditional contract is no longer applicable because of rapid economic and technological changes, the changing nature of employment relationships, and the growing disconnect between employers’ needs and government-financed secondary and postsecondary education. What is needed are new incentives and risk management tools and for employers to become more engaged in working with education and training providers in developing talent.
When machines come for our jobs, we will need skills in communication, creativity, collaboration, and complex thinking to compete, says Joseph E. Aoun, president of Northeastern University. It will take a completely different kind of education system he says — not the current one created at the height of the farm and factory economies. He believes you can study creativity and entrepreneurship, but practice is also needed to test yourself, see where you are good and where you are not, and to determine your passion. Additionally, practice facilitates an understanding of how to work with others and allows for practicing systems thinking.
Currently, higher education is producing I-shaped graduates who focus largely on their particular knowledge and skill-set, views the workplace as a competitive environment, and works within disciplinary silos. T-shaped professionals are characterized by their deep disciplinary knowledge in at least one area, an understanding of systems, and their ability to function as “adaptive innovators” and cross the boundaries between disciplines. Currently, many college and university graduates have been trained to be productive in one field, but employers are placing increasing importance on skills that reach beyond a single discipline or focus.
In days gone by, it was common for just two age groups to be represented in the workplace. There were long-serving, “dyed-in-the-wool” old-timers and ambitious newcomers. Times have changed, and now you could find yourself working with as many as five generations. Broadly speaking, each one has its own set of preferences, styles, perspectives, and experiences. Generational diversity has great potential, however, the potential for conflict and misunderstanding is very real and intergenerational conflict within the workplace is a growing issue. Learn more about the six strategies for thriving within a multi-generational mix.
Characteristics of Different Age Groups in the Labor Force Today
There is an urgent need for young people to develop the practical skills employers are demanding. Employers globally declare that educational institutions are not adequately preparing young people with appropriate skills for the jobs they have available, and the deficit is greatest in the area of soft skills. Fortunately, there are shining examples of schools from which we can learn—schools that take responsibility for preparing all of their students to become changemaking leaders.
All economic indicators show a positive view of the U.S. economy in 2018, with the majority of occupations projected to grow. The fastest growth next year is in the healthcare, personal care, social assistance and construction sectors. Compare and contrast the previous years’ predictions (2013-2017) that are based on hundreds of conversations with executives and workers, a series of national and global online surveys and secondary research from more than 450 different research sources, including colleges, consulting firms, non-profits, the government and trade associations.
Explore the two resources below to obtain employabiity skills topics and learning objective samples that can help generate ideas for complementary content for your courses.
Skillsoft – An eLearning resource that provides a wide range of business skills and leadership content including a catalog of courses with learning objectives, white papers, case studies, and analyst research reports.
Incorporate industry trends and professional development opportunities within learning activities, so learners can keep abreast of industry changes by having them compare and contrast association information, identify historical changes, or predict future trends.
Directory of Associations – Find over 35,000+ local, regional, national and international associations. Search by state, category, type and size.
CareerOneStop – Locate national professional associations by occupation or industry served. Contact associations to find professional development opportunities, and keep current on changes in your industry. Search by industry, occupation, or association name.
If you want your learners to have opportunities to explore the realistic aspects of the world of work and future jobs, think about ways to incorporate labor market, industry and occupational information into your learning activities. Below are a few resources to get you started.
Global Transformation Maps is a dynamic knowledge tool to understand the issues and forces driving transformation change across economies, industries, global issues and the World Economic Forum’s system initiatives. Tip: Select Workforce and Employment (requires creating a free account to access interactive map).
Do you and your learners know what employers really want? Augment your learning activities with information about which skills, abilities, and expertise employers in various fields are seeking and how to incorporate the most relevant skills and keywords in résumés, cover letters, and interviews.
In much of the recent research to prepare learners for the 21st Century Workforce, a common recommendation is for universities to develop meaningful partnerships with employers. Learn about best practices from others.
A Toolkit for Building Successful Partnerships – The toolkit includes creating a navigator for industry partners, key characteristics of productive partnerships, practical steps for building relationships between colleges and industries.
Creating Industry Relationships that Work – Driven by a lack of skills and knowledge that can impede the nation’s global competitiveness, a collaboration of leaders from industry, city government, the school district, higher education and non-profit youth development organizations formed a coalition to become instrumental in education innovation.
The National Network’s library of tools, guides, white papers, frameworks and other resources can provide guidance to educators and other learning providers so they will know what foundational skills to emphasize. These products can also help employers, industry leaders, learning providers and others who seek to take action and connect learning and work in their companies, communities and beyond. Learn more about the National Network’s innovation projects.
Work-and-Learn in Action Guidebook – introduces employers, educators and others to a range of options along the work-and-learn continuum to help them find an approach that works for their organization and community.
Common Employability Skills – a cross-industry approach to foundational skills regardless of where employees work.
Blueprint for Organizations to Create Standards-Based Credentials -a first step in defining the qualities that make programs valuable to consumers—employers, workers and students.
Attributes of the New Business-Led Work-And-Learn Models
Learn how the Necessary Skills Now teams of faculty and employers will develop a curriculum that integrates technical content and employability concepts within existing courses rather than teach stand-alone courses on employability topics in isolation from the technical content. The project will provide opportunities to teach employability skills prioritized by industry within discipline-specific courses using authentic workplace scenarios as the context for instruction.
Validate broad employability skills categories; select and prepare curriculum development team members for collaboration.
Using an integrated curriculum development process, develop, pilot, revise, and disseminate 12 curriculum projects (six per sector) integrating employability and technical course concepts.
Provide faculty professional development resources and workshops to support implementation of integrated projects and replication of curriculum design process across other institutions and sectors.
January 26, 2018 / tcrai1 / Comments Off on Employability in Higher Education: A Review of Practice and Strategies Around the World
Employability in Higher Education: A review of practice and strategies around the world is a literature review associated with the practice, ecosystems and strategies in place around the world that are used to improve the employability levels of students and graduates and ensure that their skills and knowledge are fit-for-purpose for the graduate labor market upon leaving Higher Education (HE). The publication is divided into five sections:
How are higher education institutions developing coherent employability programs’?
Best practice methods of embedding employability skills into the curriculum, and the importance of pedagogy.
What graduate employability skills to employers value?
How can higher education institutions and employers build closer working relationships?
January 26, 2018 / tcrai1 / Comments Off on Learn How Universities are Augmenting their Curriculum with Real-world, Career-specific Teachings
In a McGraw-Hill Education 2015 Workforce Readiness Survey, thirty-five percent of college students said college was effective in preparing them for a job while 61% wanted classes designed to help build career skills. Additionally, in an IBM Institute Report, Pursuit of Relevance: How Higher Education Remains Viable in Today’s Dynamic World,only 43% across industry and academia believe higher education prepares students with necessary workforce skills. If you’re seeking ideas for curriculum improvement, learn how other universities are augmenting their curriculum with real-world, career-specific teachings.
Learning to Work Working to Learn – a publication that showcases promising examples of business-higher education partnerships that embed career development throughout a student’s college experience and treat both students and employers as customers.
Intellectual and Practical Skills: inquiry and analysis, critical thinking, creative thinking, written communication, oral communication, reading, quantitative literacy, information literacy, teamwork, and problem-solving
Personal and Social Responsibility: civic engagement, intercultural knowledge and competence, ethical reasoning, foundations and skills for lifelong learning, global learning
Integrative and Applied Learning: integrative learning
Emerging EdTech 21st Century Assessments Rubric -By creating assignments that earn high scores on this rubric, you can provide opportunities for students to develop and master the skills that are increasingly necessary to excel in today’s increasingly digital world while demonstrating acquisition of the required outcomes in many different types of courses. Criteria categories include:
choice, flexibility, writing required, inquiry-based learning, real-world connection, collaboration, digital literacy, entrepreneurial skills, and mastery learning.
ConnectEd Studios Rubrics Bank – You’ll need to establish a free account to access the rubrics bank. Sample rubrics you might be interested in include teamwork, group skills, and digital communication to name a few.
Study.com has over 22,000 video lessons searchable by grade level, subject, and keyword with 50,000+ additional articles relative to making college and career decisions. Preview lesson content by previewing the partial transcript to explore potential employability skills topics complementary to your courses. Tip: Use the keyword search feature to explore content and review disciplines other than yours for complementary content (e.g. Effective Communication in the Workplace; Philosophy – Ethics in America etc.).
If you’re wanting to identify resources by industry sector, ConnectEd is your go-to resource providing a wealth of curriculum resources including lesson plans, student handouts, and media and web resources.
The Leadership Development Center at York College conducted a national professionalism study, which identified key professionalism components spanning across industries and occupations. In the 2015 report, respondents ranked seven responsible parties according to how responsible they felt each should be in developing professionalism in college graduates. Students themselves were ranked number one and were followed by faculty ranking number two. The report also describes the qualities of professionalism and unprofessionalism. This list of qualities could be used for developing learner expectations for your course and allow various opportunities for practice in adopting professional attitudes and behaviors prior to graduation. Adapt ideas from this learning activity to help your learners improve in professionalism behavior and attitudes.
Leadership Development Center, 2015 National Professionalism Study
January 24, 2018 / tcrai1 / Comments Off on Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College
The report, Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College, details findings and recommendations that promote the kind of learning students need to meet emerging challenges in the workplace, in a diverse democracy, and in an interconnected world. The report also proposes a series of specific actions and collaborations to substantially raise the quality of student learning in college.
AAC&U Greater Expectations Report: Organizing Educational Principles from Present to the New Academy
The practice guidelines for integrating practice-based experiences were developed by Professor Stephen Billett, Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC), National Teaching Fellow. The guidelines are intended to assist higher education faculty to make decisions about organizing and integrating student experiences in practice settings to support student development, so they will make smooth transitions to their selected occupations upon graduation. The guidelines focus on:
purposes for organizing and integrating experiences;
key learning outcomes;
key considerations for providing practice-based experiences;
different ways of providing practice experiences for students;
sets of principles and practice associated with organizing those experiences within the curriculum;
enriching pedagogic practices.
The report identifies and appraises curriculum and pedagogic principles and practices for integrating higher education students’ experiences across practice and university settings through three phases of activities:
sponsored and engaged 20 projects from a wide range of disciplines across six universities to identify principles and practices;
appraised the 20 projects’ principles for practice, processes and outcomes in terms of educational worth for developing the kinds of knowledge graduates need to smoothly transition into their selected occupations;
attempted to align particular kinds of curriculum and pedagogic practices that are associated with specific kinds of learning.
The Dialogue Forum for the ALTC National Teaching Fellowship booklet contains information pertaining to the fellowship program, project details and findings.
Explore the ACT WorkKeys Assessment information developed to measure foundational hard and soft skills relevant to any occupation, at any level, and across industries. Each assessment has characteristics and skills divided into seven levels of difficulty. Use the information to explore ideas for developing or enhancing learning activities.
Graphic Literacy – Use charts, graphs and diagrams for identifying what information is being presented and understanding how to use it.
Workplace Documents – Be creative and incorporate readings that reflect real workplace documents. Learners can gather information from the documents to make job-related decisions and solve problems. Sample documents can include messages, emails, letters, directions, signs, bulletins, policies, websites, contracts, and regulations.
BusinessWriting – Assess learning activities in the context of workplace writing needs. Content needs to be clear and free of distractions such as poor grammar, misspellings, and extraneous information. Explain to learners how careless errors may lead the reader (e.g. customer, supervisor etc.) to believe other errors may exist in terms of facts, resulting in the writer (or employee) losing credibility and trustworthiness.
Workplace Observation – Provide opportunities for learners to observe, follow, understand, and evaluate processes, demonstrations, and other workplace procedures.
Fit – Help learners identify interests and values compatible with a work environment conducive for job success.
Talent – Develop activities to increase awareness of a student’s attitude or behavior, that if demonstrated in the workplace, could lead to disciplinary action or termination. Provide opportunities for growth and feedback.
Skillsoft Books is a new database resource provided by UIS Brookens Library. Access the complete, unabridged content of more than 20,000+ online books and 40,000+ streaming videos in a fully searchable database.
TIP: For relevant information pertaining to employability skills and industry, search the Business Skills and Government Categories. Select current trending workplace articles that can be used to demonstrate real-world application and connects course concepts with skills. Login now to explore Skillsoft Books (requires UIS Netid and password).
The Competency Model Clearinghouse initiative was developed in partnership between the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration and industry partners. The goal of the initiative is to promote an understanding of the skill sets and competencies that are essential to educate and train a globally competitive workforce. Currently, 26 diverse industry models exist including fundamentals of health care, cybersecurity, financial services and renewable energy.
Supplemental resources for educators, businesses, and workforce professionals include:
Contextual teaching and learning theory emphasizes the relationship of course content to real-life situations by teaching abstract subject matter within the context of how it’s applied in the workplace and everyday life. Consider use this teaching approach that incorporates the five essential strategies of REACT:
Relating: Learn in the context of life experience.
Experiencing: Learn in the context of exploration, discovery, and invention.
Applying: Apply concepts and information in a useful context such as projects related to a possible career, or in an unfamiliar location such as the workplace.
Cooperating: Cooperate in the context of sharing, responding and communicating with other learners.
Transferring: Learn in the context of existing knowledge, or transferring uses and builds upon what the learner already knows.
The Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP) outlines a set of reference points for what students should know and be able to do upon completion of an associate, bachelor’s and master’s degrees – in any field of study. The are five broad, interrelated categories of proficiencies which provide a profile of what degrees mean in terms of specific learning outcomes.
The 21st century student outcomes are the skills, knowledge and expertise students should master to succeed in work and life in the 21st century. The P21’s Framework for 21st Century Learning was developed with input from teachers, education experts, and business leaders to define and illustrate the skills and knowledge students need to succeed in work, life and citizenship, as well as the support systems necessary for 21st century learning outcomes.
The theme and skill categories below have corresponding Student Outcomes. Determine which outcomes you have already included in your courses, or use as a reference to consider adding to your course.
21st Century Interdisciplinary Themes:
Financial, economic, business and entrepreneurial literacy
OpenLearn provides educational resources that can be filtered by skills, subjects, and free courses. Resource type includes articles, activities, courses, eBooks, Audios, Videos, TV & Radio and Posters & Booklets.
The North Carolina Network for Excellence in Teaching developed an Employability Skills Resource Toolkit comprised of eight modules for faculty to use for integrating employability skills across the curriculum. Use the modules to introduce a topic or adapt for course-specific content. Each module contains instructional materials with course lessons and learning objectives, questions for reflection and discussion, student handouts, assessment rubrics, facilitator notes and annotated presentation slides.
The Rigor Relevance Framework was developed by the International Center for Leadership in Education to examine curriculum, instruction, and assessment along the two dimensions of higher standards and student achievement. The tool can be used for both instruction and assessment.
The Knowledge Taxonomy (y-axis) based on Bloom’s Taxonomy
Six level – thinking continuum
Application Model (x-axis), developed by Bill Daggett
Five level – knowledge continuum
Includes using knowledge to solve complex, real-world problems and create projects, designs, and other works for use in real-world situations.
The U.S. Department of Education’s Employability Skills Framework is comprised of nine key skills, organized in three broad categories: Applied Knowledge, Effective Relationships, and Workplace Skills. The framework has supplemental information resources and tools to assist with informing the instruction and assessment of employability skills.
Keeping abreast of current and future workforce trends provide insight and ideas for new and enhanced skill development options when updating or creating new academic course content. According to Deloitte Insight’s, The Future of Work article and video, the paradigm-shifting forces such as cognitive technologies and the open talent economy are reshaping the future workforce, driving many organizations to reconsider how they design jobs, organize work, and plan for future growth. Review the figure below for a quick comparison of changing workforce rules that need to be adopted for leading, organizing, motivating, managing, and engaging the 21st-century workforce.